[1], As scholars have noted, saints venerated in traditional Turkish Sunni Islam may be classified into three principal categories:[1]. This page has been accessed 133,001 times. "[1] The veneration of saints really spread in the Turkish lands from the tenth to the fourteenth centuries,[1] and played a crucial role in medieval Turkic Sunni piety not only in cosmopolitan cities but also "in rural areas and amongst nomads of the whole Turkish world. Who wrote this after witnessing a girl invoke supplications upon the Prophet (may Allah bestow peace and blessings upon him) and scoop some water out a well that was totally empty previously. For the administrative title, see, Turkey, the Balkans, the Caucasus and Azerbaijan, For further informations, see the articles. jurist, hadith scholar, judge, traditionist, historian, ascetic, poet), saints were also distinguished cosmologically as regards their celestial function or standing. [5] The doctrine of saints was articulated by Muslim scholars very early on in Islamic history,[6][7][5][8] and particular verses of the Quran and certain hadith were interpreted by early Muslim thinkers as "documentary evidence"[5] of the existence of saints. A Walīyu 'llāh (ولي الله) therefore denotes one who is a friend of Allah. There have been Awliya Allah in every era and there will always be Awliya Allah in every era. The veneration of saints in Maghrebi Sunni Islam has been studied by scholars with regard to the various "types" of saints venerated by Sunnis in those areas. [1] The contemporary scholar of Sufism Martin Lings described the Islamic saints as "the great incarnations of the Islamic ideal.... spiritual giants with which almost every generation was blessed."[36]. Please do bookmark this page and return periodically to check for updates. And the states of the Abdal are revealed to the elect and the Gnostics (who are under the elect). And the intention of the Hafiz (Ibn Hajar) was that mention of the Ghawth is not found in any Sahih hadith, but the fact that it is widespread and well-known, and frequently mentioned among the people of this pure path (the Sufis), is enough to indicate its established basis. By them, the earth is established (bihim taqum al-Ard), and by them you are sent rain, and by them you are granted help and victory.”. Hudhayfa ibn Yaman said: “The Abdal in my community are in Syria, and they are 30 men on the way of Ibrahim (asws)… And the group (of righteous Awliya’) in Iraq are 40 men… 20 of them are on the way of ‘Isa (asws), and 20 of them have been given some of the instruments which the Khalifa Da’ud (asws) was given.”, 6. 1166). Also from ‘Ubada: “The Abdal in my community are thirty. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. [11][12], Aside from the Sufis, the preeminent saints in traditional Islamic piety are the Companions of the Prophet, their Successors, and the Successors of the Successors. "[1], Although the doctrine of the hierarchy of saints is already found in written sources as early as the eighth-century,[1] it was al-Tirmidhi who gave it its first systematic articulation. called it: “The narrations which demonstrate the existence of the Qutb and the Awtad and 12. The best of company are they," to carry a reference to holy people who were not prophets and were ranked below the latter. 2. [1] With the general consensus of Islamic scholars of the period accepting that the ulema were responsible for maintaining the "exoteric" part of Islamic orthodoxy, including the disciplines of law and jurisprudence, while the Sufis were responsible for articulating the religion's deepest inward truths,[1] later prominent mystics like Ibn Arabi (d. 1240) only further reinforced this idea of a saintly hierarchy, and the notion of "types" of saints became a mainstay of Sunni mystical thought, with such types including the ṣiddīqūn ("the truthful ones") and the abdāl ("the substitute-saints"), amongst others. Whenever one of them dies, Allah substitutes another in his place. 13. 2, #10). Even the Kings, Magicians and Hindu Jogis and Tantric of their ages could not move them from their rightous path: Following 11 great muslim sufi are include in this book: Awais Qarni, Khawja Hasan Basri, Ibrahim Adham, Zunnoon Misri, Hussain Ibn-e-Mansoor … [1] From the twelfth to the fourteenth century, "the general veneration of saints, among both people and sovereigns, reached its definitive form with the organization of Sufism ... into orders or brotherhoods". Soon the non-followers found out that Islam is the only true Religion from GOD (Allah) and they should live their lives according to Islamic ways. From Anas: Allah said, “The most beloved of My worshippers to Me are those who love each other purely for My sake, who frequent the masajid, and ask forgiveness in the predawn hours. "[1] Abū Madyan travelled to the East, where he is said to have met prominent mystics like the renowned Hanbali jurist Abdul-Qadir Gilani (d. And the Qur'an has pointed to it in different places, and the sayings of the Prophet have mentioned it, and whoever denies the miraculous power of saints are only people who are innovators and their followers. I see no point in arguing with someone who claims that Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani, A Hassani and Hussaini Syed, the Sultan of Awliya an authority and Jurist in the Shafi'i and Hanbali Madhabs was part of a 'made up sect'. They do not fake their humility, nor fake their being dead to the world, nor are they ostentatiously impressed with themselves. 800-1800), exactly which saints were most widely venerated in any given cultural climate depended on the hagiographic traditions of that particular area. Awliya' Allah Project is part of the extensive archaeological survey of Iqlim El Kharrub province (Chouf District, Lebanon) carried out by the Polish Archaeological Mission in Lebanon since 1999. Ramadan – The Month of the Awliya (Allah’s Friends) بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم The Prophet of Allāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam narrates from Allāh, “Whoever displays animosity towards My walī (friend), I declare war on him. "[1] Amongst classical scholars, Qushayri (d. 1073) defined the saint as someone "whose obedience attains permanence without interference of sin; whom God preserves and guards, in permanent fashion, from the failures of sin through the power of acts of obedience. These servants occupy the most sublime levels of proximity to Allah, enjoying … His soul, his ego, is eliminated and ... when he acts, it is God Who acts through him. However, their recognition may be difficult. They do not grief or fear. [1], Regarding the rendering of the Arabic walī by the English "saint", prominent scholars such as Gibril Haddad have regarded this as an appropriate translation, with Haddad describing the aversion of some Muslims towards the use of "saint" for walī as "a specious objection ... for [this is] – like 'Religion' (din), 'Believer' (mu'min), 'prayer' (salat), etc. [10] In many prominent Sunni creeds of the time, such as the famous Creed of Tahawi (c. 900) and the Creed of Nasafi (c. 1000), a belief in the existence and miracles of saints was presented as "a requirement" for being an orthodox Muslim believer. This is experienced by anyone who performs righteous actions. As the veneration accorded saints often develops purely organically in Islamic climates, the Awliya Alla… Affirming that Karamat (mini miracles) are real and only pious people have the potential to experience them if Allah so wills. Then for the next 15 pages he lists over 50 narrations to demonstrate his point, from which we will choose a few, also adding some that he did not mention. He has furthermore granted these special elect servants manifest gifts and abilities, which the common man would find difficult to understand. A wali (wali Arabic: وَلِيّ‎, walīy; plural أَوْلِيَاء, ʾawliyāʾ), the Arabic word which has been variously translated "master", "authority", "custodian", "protector" and "friend",[1][2] is most commonly used by Muslims to indicate an Islamic saint, otherwise referred to by the more literal "friend of God". Ashab al-Kahf (The people of the cave). God's, good qualities, and therefore he possesses particular authority, forces, capacities and abilities. "[1], According to various traditional Sufi interpretations of the Quran, the concept of sainthood is clearly described. Naqshbandi History and HAMD ( Praising) OF MUHAMMAD (Sal) “Praising Himself By Himself” Compliled by Sheikh Adnan Kabbani from the Knowledge of Grandsheikh Sultan ul Awliya Abdullah Faiz Dagistani (ral) and Sultan ul Awliya Moulana Sheikh Nazim, may Allah be well pleased with him THE SECLUSION DURING THE NIGHT JOURNEY Bismillahi Rahman ir Raheem.… [14][11][12][3] Hence, we find that even medieval critics of the widespread practice of venerating the tombs of saints, like Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 1328), never denied the existence of saints as such, with the Hanbali jurist stating: "The miracles of saints are absolutely true and correct, by the acceptance of all Muslim scholars. has come to know God in His names as completely as possible, he is then extinguished in God's essence. [1] The genre of hagiography (manāḳib) only became more popular with the passage of time, with numerous prominent Islamic thinkers of the medieval period devoting large works to collecting stories of various saints or to focusing upon "the marvelous aspects of the life, the miracles or at least the prodigies of a [specific] Ṣūfī or of a saint believed to have been endowed with miraculous powers. [1] According to the author, "the [spiritual] ascent of the walī ḥaḳḳ Allāh must stop at the end of the created cosmos ... he can attain God's proximity, but not God Himself; he is only admitted to God's proximity (muḳarrab). Jonathan A. C. Brown, "Faithful Dissenters: Sunni Skepticism about the Miracles of Saints", Reza Shah-Kazemi, "The Metaphysics of Interfaith Dialogue", in, Christopher Taylor, In the Vicinity of the Righteous (Leiden: Brill, 1999), pp. Also from Imam ‘Ali: “The Abdal are from Syria, and the Nujaba’ are from Egypt, and the elite righteous servants (‘isaba) are from Iraq.”, 9. [5] These included 10:62:[5] "Surely God's friends (awliyāa l-lahi): no fear shall be on them, neither shall they sorrow,"[5] and 5:54, which refers to God's love for those who love him. (5) "Jewish saints", that is to say, venerable Jewish personages whose tombs are frequented by Sunni Muslims in the area for the seeking of blessings, (2) Sufi saints, who were most often Sunni mystics who belonged to the, (3) The "greats figures of Islam", both pre-Islamic and those who came after, Radtke, "Zwischen Traditionalisms und Intellektualismus. [16] However, despite the presence of these opposing streams of thought, the classical doctrine of saint veneration continues to thrive in many parts of the Islamic world today, playing a vital role in daily expressions of piety among vast segments of Muslim populations in Muslim countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Turkey, Senegal, Iraq, Iran, Algeria, Tunisia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Morocco,[1] as well as in countries with substantial Islamic populations like India, China, Russia, and the Balkans. Saying Insha' Allah makes whatever you say right, but if you say, "I will do so and so tomorrow", then you are not aware of man's life which might come to an end in one second, and man will be in the grave in the blink of an eye. [1] A fundamental distinction was described in the ninth century by al-Tirmidhi in his Sīrat al-awliyāʾ (Lives of the Saints), who distinguished between two principal varieties of saints: the walī ḥaḳḳ Allāh on the one hand and the walī Allāh on the other. [1] The references in the corpus of hadith literature to bona fide saints like the pre-Islamic Jurayj̲,[21][22][23][24] only lent further credence to this early understanding of saints. If there is anyone in my community, it is ‘Umar ibn Khattab.” [26]. i love this shaykh may allah preserve him for us and a great lecture may allah let us be with the awliya of allah amin. Within the level of the Awliya, Allah has established a hierarchy, above which there is no hierarchy. [1][Note 1] As has been noted by scholars, the development of these movements have indirectly led to a trend amongst some mainstream Muslims to also resist "acknowledging the existence of Muslim saints altogether or ... [to view] their presence and veneration as unacceptable deviations. 910). Many people in the Muslim world have been deceived into believing that since the Awliya (friends) of Allah are alive in their graves, they can help us … [1], The general definition of the Muslim saint in classical texts is that he represents a "[friend of God] marked by [special] divine favor ... [and] holiness", being specifically "chosen by God and endowed with exceptional gifts, such as the ability to work miracles. It is the walī Allāh who reaches God. Hierarchy of Awliya. [1] Upon returning to the Maghreb, Abū Madyan stopped at Béjaïa and "formed a circle of disciples. According to Islamic historian Jonathan A.C. Brown, "saints are thought to be no different" than prophets, "as able in death to answer invocations for assistance" as they were while alive. I know 6 Aulia Allah who are secret and don't want to be named. "[16] At the same time, the movement of Islamic Modernism has also opposed the traditional veneration of saints, for many proponents of this ideology regard the practice as "being both un-Islamic and backwards ... rather than the integral part of Islam which they were for over a millennium. This cannot be denied. And the Nujaba’ are fewer in number than the righteous, and the Nuqaba’ are fewer in number than the Nujaba’, and they mix with the elect servants. Reverence for Awliya Allah have been an important part of both Sunni and ShiaIslamic tradition that particularly important classical saints have served as the heavenly advocates for specific Muslim empires, nations, cities, towns, and villages. Although he lived a fairly obscure lifestyle selling herbs and spices in the main market on Fes, he was endowed with great spiritual insight and sainthood. Allah's Apostle ﷺ said, "Allah said, 'I will declare war against him who shows hostility to a Wali of Mine. Shaykh al-Yafi’i wrote in his book Kifayat al-Mu’taqid (“Sufficiency of the Believer”): The righteous (Saliheen) are many, and they mix with the common people for the sake of their worldly and other-worldly benefit. #YemenCrisis We’re looking for 313 people to donate £48 each for the sadaqa of one of the 313 who fought in the battle of Badr (may Allah be pleased with them all). Not one of them dies except that Allah replaces him with another one to take his place, and they are now the supports of this earth. Reverence for Awliya Allah have been an important part of both Sunni and Shia Islamic tradition that particularly important classical saints have served as the heavenly advocates for specific Muslim empires, nations, cities, towns, and villages. His Son - Mawlana Shaykh Mohammad Adil Haqqani. From Abu Sa’id al-Khudri: “The Abdal from my nation did not enter into Paradise with their actions, but rather through the mercy of Allah, through the unparalleled generosity of their souls, the fact that they hold no grudge or hatred against anyone and their hearts being at peace with everyone, and through mercy for the entirety of Muslims.”, 3. [10] In fact, the latter point represents one of the crucial differences between the Islamic and Christian veneration of saints, for saints are venerated by unanimous consensus or popular acclaim in Islam, in a manner akin to all those Christian saints who began to be venerated prior to the institution of canonization. [1] It is for this reason that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which adheres to the Wahhabi creed, "destroyed the tombs of saints wherever ... able"[1] during its expansion in the Arabian Peninsula from the eighteenth-century onwards. "[1] In Islamic mysticism, a pīr's role is to guide and instruct his disciples on the mystical path. "[26] It is, in fact, reported that Ibn Hanbal explicitly identified his contemporary, the mystic Maruf Karkhi (d. 815-20), as one of the abdal, saying: "He is one of the substitute-saints, and his supplication is answered. A "spiritual disciple of these two preceding saints,"[1] Abū Madyan, a prominent Sunni Maliki scholar, was the first figure in Maghrebi Sufism "to exercise an influence beyond his own region. What differentiates between Awliya Allah and Awliya ash Shaytan? "[17] In Persian, which became the second most influential and widely spoken language in the Islamic world after Arabic,[1] the general title for a saint or a spiritual master became pīr (Persian: پیر‎, literally "old [person]", "elder"[18]). [14] In short, it is believed that "every prophet is a saint, but not every saint is a prophet". These servants of Allah, sometimes known as the Seven Sleepers (although the Quran does not specify an exact number), were not Prophets or Messengers but were blessed with special ranks and favours. So when a need arises among the commonality, the Nuqaba plead to Allah to fulfil it, then the Nujaba, then the Abdal, then the Akhyar, then the ‘Umud, and if they are answered by Allah (it stops with them), and if not, then the Ghawth pleads, and he does not complete his request until it is answered. So the dwelling of the Nuqaba are in the Maghrib, the Nujaba in Egypt, the Abdal in Sham, the Akhyar travel throughout the Earth, the ‘Umud are in the corners of the Earth, and the Ghawth is in Makka. For more examples, see Suyuti’s Hawi lil-Fatawi (2:251-55). [1] And the states of the Awtad are revealed to the elect. Say, Insha' Allah (If Allah wills)", which is Istithna' (Exception). By means of them, you are given rain, victory, and protection (from enemies, harm, etc…).”, 14. The word, in its different forms, appears in the Quran over 200 times. Geistesgeschichtliche und historiografische Bemerkungen zum Ibrīz des Aḥmad b. al-Mubārak al-Lamaṭī", in, Radtke, "Lehrer-Schüler-Enkel. [1] Adhering to the Maliki rite in its jurisprudence, the Shadhili order produced numerous widely honored Sunni saints in the intervening years, including Fāsī Aḥmad al-Zarrūq (d. 1494),[1] who was educated in Egypt but taught in Libya and Morocco, and Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad al-Jazūlī (d. 1465), "who returned to Morocco after a long trip to the East and then began a life as a hermit,"[1] and who achieved widespread renown for the miracles he is said to have wrought by the leave of God. Last update: 21 Oct 2019. [1] It was this last figure who became the preeminent saint in Maghrebi piety, due to his being the founder of one of the most famous Sunni Sufi orders of North Africa: the Shadhiliyya tariqa. From Umm Salamah: “Disagreement will occur at the death of a Khalif and a man of the people of Madina will come quickly to Makka. This hadith specifically refers to the perfection of the quality of Ilham (inspiration) in Sayyidina ‘Umar and not the fact that other Muslims lack this ability, as Hafiz Ibn Hajar explained in his commentary on this hadith. i am Kamran Ali and i am to add the history of Aualia Allah. Whenever one of them dies, Allah substitutes another one in his place.”, 11. Aḥmad b. Idrīs, Muḥammad ʿUt̲mān al-Mīrġanī, Ismāʿīl al-Walī", in, I. Goldziher, "Die Heiligenverehrung im Islam", in. 1963).[1]. Some of the people of Makka will come to him…and swear allegiance to him between the Corner (Rukn) and Maqam. "[1] As has been noted by scholars, the development of these movements has indirectly led to a trend amongst some mainstream Muslims to resist "acknowledging the existence of Muslim saints altogether or ... [to view] their presence and veneration as unacceptable deviations". After whom the Naqshbandi Golden Chain is named after. Another hadith which supports the meaning of many of the above narrations is related on the authority of Sa’d, which states: “Indeed, Allah supports this Ummah by their weak members, through their prayers, supplications, and sincerity,” and in another narration, “Is it not through the weak among the Ummah that you are granted provision and victory?”, 20. [1] It should be noted, however, that many of these concepts appear in writing far before al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Arabi; the idea of the abdāl, for example, appears as early as the Musnad of Ibn Hanbal (d. 855), where the word signifies a group of major saints "whose number would remain constant, one always being replaced by some other on his death. All believers have the capacity and ability to become the Awliya Allah. "[10] It was by virtue of his spiritual wisdom that the saint was accorded veneration in medieval Islam, "and it is this which ... [effected] his 'canonization,' and not some ecclesiastical institution" as in Christianity. The hearts of 30 of them contain the same certainty (yaqin) which Sayyidina Ibrahim (asws) had. 4. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri reported that the Prophet ﷺ said: “Be wary of the spiritual vision (firasa) of the believer, for indeed he sees by the Light of Allah.” [27], Similar to this is the hadith (reported through Anas and others) in which he ﷺ said: “Indeed, Allah has servants who know (the truth about people) through reading the signs (tawassum).”[28], 1. [39] (According to the Islamic concept of Punishment of the Grave -- established by hadith -- the dead are still conscious and active, with the wicked suffering in their graves as a prelude to hell and the pious at ease.) [1] Additionally, saints are also sometimes referred to in the Persian or Urdu vernacular with "Hazrat. Calling on the Dead Awliya of Allah. [1] Their tombs, meanwhile, are "denoted by terms of Arabic or Persian origin alluding to the idea of pilgrimage (mazār, ziyāratgāh), tomb (ḳabr, maḳbar) or domed mausoleum (gunbad, ḳubba). And the Abdal occupy the great countries of the earth. Finally, Ibn ‘Asakir (1:299) and Ibn Abi Khaythama narrate that Uthman ibn ‘Ata was having a conversation with his father, who told him, “The Abdal are forty Insan (humans).” So he said to his father, “Forty men?” and his father replied, “Do not say men, but rather say humans, for there could be women among them.”, 1. And the states of the Qutb are veiled from the common and the elect, out of Allah’s jealousy for him, except that he is seen to be (at the same time) knowledgeable and ignorant, dim-witted and intelligent, taking and leaving, near and far, gentle and harsh, safe and dangerous…(meaning that he combines in himself the opposites). 1935), Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki (d. 2004), Hamza Yusuf (b. Abu Darda’ said: “When Prophethood ended – and they were the supports (Awtad) of the earth – Allah substituted their places with 40 men from the nation of Muhammad (blessings and peace be upon him), who are named “Abdal” (the Substitutes). [9], Since the first Muslim hagiographies were written during the period when the Islamic mystical trend of Sufism began its rapid expansion, many of the figures who later came to be regarded as the major saints in orthodox Sunni Islam were the early Sufi mystics, like Hasan of Basra (d. 728), Farqad Sabakhi (d. 729), Dawud Tai (d. 777–781), Rabia of Basra (d. 801), Maruf Karkhi (d. 815), and Junayd of Baghdad (d. [35][1] Al-Tirmidhi states, furthermore, that although the saint is not sinless like the prophets, he or she can nevertheless be "preserved from sin" (maḥfūz) by the grace of God. Harith ibn Malik al-Ansari passed by the Prophet ﷺ who asked him, “How are you this morning, O Harith?” and he replied, “This morning I am a true believer in Allah.” The Prophet ﷺ said: “Take care of what you say, for everything has a proof to it, so what is the proof of your belief?” He said: “I have turned myself away from this world by keeping awake at night and staying thirsty by day; and I can almost see the Throne of my Lord in full view before me, and I can see the people of the Garden visiting each other, and the people of the Fire wailing to each other.” The Prophet ﷺ said, “O Harith! The scholars of Tafsir agree unanimously that this "wahy" refers to inspiration (ilham) and unveiling (kashf), and not revelation which only Prophets receive. “The folk (Ahl) of the Qur’an are the folk of Allah (Ahl ul-Laah) and His elect.”, 17. So I have collected these narrations in this booklet to be of benefit. The dargah and mosque of Haji Ali [1], Scholars have noted the tremendously "important role"[1] the veneration of saints has historically played in Islamic life all these areas, especially amongst Sunnis who frequent the many thousands of tombs scattered throughout the region for blessings in performing the act of ziyāra. So he said, “O Abu Hurayra, that’s him,” and then said to the man three times, “Welcome to Yasaar (other versions mention Hilal).” This man used to sweep and clean the Mosque, and he was a servant of Mughira ibn Shu’ba. It undoubtedly demonstrates the reality and existence and nature of these Awliya (Intimate Friends of Allah), and so no one has the right to deny their existence and special distinction after this knowledge has come to them. A project dedicated to plotting the resting places of the Awliya, Sahaba, Ahl al-Bayt and Prophets of Islam around the world. Official Websites and Social Media. [1] It is, moreover, evident from the Kitāb al-Kas̲h̲f wa ’l-bayān of the early Baghdadi Sufi mystic Abu Sa'id al-Kharraz (d. 899) that a cohesive understanding of the Muslim saints was already in existence, with al-Kharraz spending ample space distinguishing between the virtues and miracles (karāmāt) of the prophets and the saints. They do not love the world, nor love for its sake...”, 5. When the walī Allāh has traversed all the realms of the Divine Names, i.e. This hadith alone suffices as evidence of their existence to the end of times. All believers have the capacity and ability to become the Awliya Allah. The word can also mean “ally” or “friend”. From this verse there are two criterion of a Wali: A Wali is someone who occupies a very close station to Allah and is protected by Allah from major sins and repetition of sins in general, and kept in a state of obedience. Note: This blessed list of the Saints of Singapore has been checked and verified by Syed Ahmad Ridhwan Alhabshi. Sayyida Maryam was a Siddiqa (see Q4:69 and Q5:75), which is one of the highest categories of Ihsan, and she was granted numerous miracles, such as being provided for without intermediaries or secondary causes (Q3:37), and giving birth without human impregnation (Q3:47 and Q19:20), and super-human strength (Q19:25). [1], Amongst Indian Muslims, the title pīr baba (पीर बाबा) is commonly used in Hindi to refer to Sufi masters or similarly honored saints. A project dedicated to plotting the resting places of the Awliya, Sahaba, Ahl al-Bayt and Prophets of Islam around the world. [1], The amount of veneration a specific saint received varied from region to region in Islamic civilization, often on the basis of the saint's own history in that region. Hilyat ul- Awliya wa Tabaqat-ul-Asfiya (The Adornment of the Saints and the encyclopedic book by Shaykh Abu Nuaym Ahmad al-Isphahani. Grace Martin Smith and C.W. You have realized (the truth), therefore cling to it.” Some versions add, “(This is) a believer whose heart Allah has illumined.”, http://www.sufiwiki.com/index.php?title=Awliya&oldid=1340. [1] It was Abu Madyan (d. 1197), however, who eventually became one of the Awliya Allah of the entire Maghreb. [1] In Islam, however, the saints are represented in traditional texts as serving separate celestial functions, in a manner similar to the angels, and this is closely linked to the idea of a celestial hierarchy in which the various types of saints play different roles. And when one of the four die, Allah replaces him with the best of the seven Abdal…and so on. Ala inna awliyaa Allahi la khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona, Lahumu albushra fee alhayati alddunya wafee al-akhirati la tabdeela likalimati Allahi thalika huwa alfawzu alAAatheemu. 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