Cooking Venison Steaks How To … And I do this with something healthier and better tasting than Italian dressing. On this edition of "Dead On," pro archer Randy Ulmer shows you how to properly align your release arm for better accuracy and bowhunting practice. The secret is in the preparation. How do you tenderize deer meat? TENDERIZING DEER MEAT AND CUTTING DOWN ON WILD TASTE Mix 1/2 cup vinegar and water. Wipe the deer carcass down with a vinegar solution about every day. The best way to marinade venison is in a large gallon Ziplock bag in the refrigerator overnight. Water can help cool the meat, but moist surfaces are a breeding ground for bacteria. Learning a bit about how to match a cut to a marinade will help you tenderize the meat and add flavor. Bowhunter TV Editor Derek Mleynek sets up for some hog and whitetail hunting at Canyon Ranch in Texas. How long you age your game is a balance of how tender you want it and how much loss you are willing to accept. The process tenderizes the venison as it cooks, so it’s a great way to use up tougher cuts like the front shoulder, shank meat, and sirloin tip. Enter your First Name and Email Address to receive our FREE 150 Premium Venison Recipe Book in seconds! To inhibit bacteria growth and encourage enzymes to work, keep the meat above freezing and below 40 degrees. Braising is the act of cooking something using moist heat, generally over a long period of time. If you cut with the grain it will be tough. If necessary, use a cloth dampened with fresh water — never water from a creek, river, or pond — to wipe down the carcass, but be sure there is plenty of good air flow to dry the surface quickly. The term venison was originally used to describe the meat of any furred game, but in Britain it has come to mean the meat from deer (though in America it means the meat from antelope, caribou, elk, moose and reindeer, as well as deer). Article by Jessica Wolfe. Many of them are out of the hunter's control, including the age of the animal, its activity level, diet, and environment. Liberally salt both sides of steaks. Proper aging allows natural enzymes to breakdown and Step 2. Crushed garlic added with the salt makes for a more flavorful steak. Many people don’t like using shank meat because it can be tough. This helps a deer…walk, just like you. Ideally, it should be slightly pink in the center when you serve it. Pat dry with paper towels. It is especially true that different techniques must be used when quick cooking the meat. Apple and Cheddar-Ale Moose Burger Recipe, Understanding the Value of a Wild Game Harvest, Tree Saddle Hunting — Demo Climb With Aider, Grilled Korean Bulgogi Venison Kebabs Recipe, Slow Cooker Venison and Cabbage Stew Recipe, Cooking Tips for Tenderizing Your Venison Cuts, when it comes to the rest of the animal, hunters are often at a loss, how that deer has been living or what it has been doing, Better Bow Accuracy: Release Arm Alignment. Share this: Twitter; Facebook; Tagged as: Briner Jr, brining, corning, gift for hunter. Then, saute the mirepoix and aromatics in the Dutch oven for about 4 to 5 minutes, until the ingredients soften. There are marinades that call for enzymes rather than acids, and enzymes actually do tenderize meat by breaking down the muscle fibers and the collagen that holds the muscles together. Toughness in venison (or any meat for that matter) is determined by a number of things, the length of the muscle, the age of the animal, nutrition, time of the rut, etc. In fact, I would argue that it's actually the opposite. Don’t keep pushing the steak about otherwise you may throw off the water, stopping them browning. The acidity in the ingredients will break down the muscle fibers in the meat to make it easier to chew. Either way, braising big game is the best way to make the most of your meat. Who knows where that piece of meat from the grocery store has been, or who has handled it before you bought it. Then when you butcher it, be sure to cut across the grain of the meat. Add your venison steaks to a zip-top bag or a bowl with a lid. If those muscles are cut from the bone before the rigor mortis releases, they won't stretch back out, resulting in tight, or tough, cuts of meat. We recommend the Jaccard Supertendermatic 48-Blade Tenderizer which has given us EXCELLENT results! This doesn't happen right away; it … Enjoy this venison queso dip recipe right out of the slow cooker for warm, cheesy goodness in... A simple, classic steak and French fries duo gets a wild makeover with this Elk Venison... Danny Farris and Doyle Worbington of J&D Outfitters are hunting turkeys in Colorado. Liberally salt both sides of steaks. The longer the time period, the thicker the dry cap that must be removed. It is also one of the most important cooking techniques for game cooks, and probably the one I use the most, although I typically braise in the oven or stovetop using my cast-iron Dutch oven. This means opening up the body cavity and removing the organs soon after the kill. Despite what people say, aging is not the same as rotting. Sometimes, it's a mistake to give deer too much credit for thinking. Add onions and saute until translucent; … All Rights Reserved. Tenderizing meat essentially means that you are pre-chewing the meat with a tool to make it thinner and more tender. It comes down to personal preference and whether you can maintain the ideal temperature conditions without the risk of spoilage. There's a reason fine steakhouses state right on their menu: "Not responsible for steaks ordered well done.". All of the previous points are important to getting the most from your big game animal, and no less important is where the meat and heat meet — in the kitchen. Using a meat tenderizer, rolling pin or the flat side of a heavy butcher knife, pound steaks to ¼-inch thick and let steak rest 10 minutes. Maybe throw in a few onions. Almost every kitchen has a meat mallet, most of which have never been used. Anybody can cook a deer steak, but when it comes to the rest of the animal, hunters are often at a loss. Pat dry with paper towels. There are many benefits to putting a lighted nock on your hunting arrows. Instead, to get the most out of your big game, it's up to you to control the things you can control, such as field-dressing, butchering, aging, and selecting the proper cooking method for each particular cut. You can use any cut of venison meat and make it tender without having an over powering game taste. Check out our cooking tips for more information on how to cook all types of venison meat. - … Let the meat hang like this for a week or more. Three to four days is the minimum, with seven days being ideal. Tenderizing steak with a meat mallet is probably the easiest way to tenderize steak. Pound the venison steak with the meat mallet until it is roughly twice the original size. The bacteria that causes meat to rot thrives between 40 and 140 degrees, so it's imperative to do everything possible to keep meat out of this danger zone. This can be done easily with a fillet knife. Again, this recipe works best with a steaks that are at least an inch thick, but you can use this method for a flank steak or a thinner … How to Tenderize Venison How to Tenderize Venison – Overview. The loin, aka the backstrap, is the long muscle that runs along the deer’s spine. Or, go the sauerbraten route and marinate a large roast for a week or more. Let sit about 20 minutes and rinse well before cooking. ©2021 Outdoor Sportsman Group. The reason for this is that no-one has ever showed you how to use it. I prefer two weeks when possible, although I know hunters who swear by the 21 to 28-day window. I'm betting Bowhunter readers know a thing or two about field-dressing, so I won't dive into that subject too deeply. Meat pounder or needle tenderizer: Meat pounders or mallets are beyond easy to use. Remove all sinew, fat, and slimy membrane from the meat. Dust steaks with seasoned flour. A Meat Grinder For Hunters December 17, 2015; Let a Hitch Hoist do the heavy lifting on your deer December 15, 2015; Cooking with Cast Iron Pans November 12, 2015; Use a food slicer to expand your venison options October 29, … If you don't process it yourself — and that's okay — use a meat processor you trust. This method is good for meats that will be roasted or grilled. Soaking cuts of meat in salty brine overnight may tenderize a bit, but it can be very useful for removing the “gamey” taste of venison. Deer meat -- also referred to as venison -- is tender, moist and flavorful when prepared by knowledgeable hands. Before I go any further, I need to dispel the notion that eating rare game meat is dangerous. Go farther, hunt deeper, and trek lighter while enjoying all-day comfort. Every hunter knows the master Cream of Mushroom soup recipe. Marinate the meat in an acid-based marinade (we recommend. In any case, eating a deer steak cooked to medium rare is as safe as doing the same with a prime cut of beef. This includes crank or push-style cubers that use fine blades to sever the muscles into smaller lengths. To help tenderize and "add fat," the secret is olive oil and a fork. Bowhunter TV's Derek Mleynek and Equipment Editor Tony J. Peterson head to Texas for a late-season mixed bag hunt in a truly target-rich environment. In other words, yogurt and buttermilk are strong enough to make meat tender without turning it tough or mushy. Tenderizing actually requires that you break up or soften the muscle fibers, which you can do either physically or chemically. Copyright © 2012 VenisonHQ | Developed by Stark Media Group, LLC, Enter your First Name and Email Address to receive our, Jaccard Supertendermatic 48-Blade Tenderizer, New Review: Cuisinart SM-MG Meat Grinder Attachment, Waring MG855 Professional Meat Grinder Reviewed. The salt relaxes the muscle fiber and traps fat in so you get a juicier steak. Put your venison roast in a Crock-Pot. All Bowhunter subscribers now have digital access to their magazine content. So go ahead and use those marinades to flavor your venison, but don't think they're tenderizing your meat. The ideal temperature range for aging meat is between 34 and 37 degrees. For stubbornly tough cuts of venison meat, the best way to tenderize them is to stew or braise for several hours. To prepare your meat for canning, simply trim away as much fat and connective tissue as possible and dice the meat into roughly 1-inch cubes. Soak meat in mixture for 2 hours. The issue with each of these is they present an unknown to the hunter. Those muscles then relax again, starting within 12 to 24 hours. Dump in a can of Cream of Mushroom soup and let it cook all day long. This means you have the option to read your magazine on most popular phones and tablets. So even a three-day marinade isn't going to penetrate much past the surface of the meat. Acids denature protein, breaking down connective tissue and softening meat by increasing water content. There is an entire scientific dissertation about the effects of myosins and enzymes, but at its most basic, rigor mortis is the contraction of muscle groups that occurs soon after death. Combine flour, salt, and pepper in a large bowl. Place each piece of coated … Shanks have a lot of connective tissue because they’re located on the leg of the animal. What’s the Best Meat Grinder for the Money? Related Posts. Salt it. If handled wrong, or just happens to be off some tough, old bastard, it can still be tough. Use one teaspoon of powder for each pound of meat. Rinse them well and pat dry before grilling. Steaks to be grilled can be tenderized by rubbing them with salt and letting them rest 20-60 minutes. | Tenderize Meat With Heat Meat with a lot of connective tissue can be tenderized by cooking it until the collagen melts away, which starts to happen between 160 and 200 F. When the connective tissue melts, it turns into gelatin, which is soft and jiggly rather than tough and chewy. With wild game, particularly if you process it yourself and use sanitary practices, you know every moment of that steak's life, from the time you shot it until it goes on your plate. You don't know anything else about that animal leading up to the 30 seconds or a minute that you interacted with it before the shot. To get started, click the link below to visit mymagnow.com and learn how to access your digital magazine. Others, particularly those from the neck, front shoulder, shanks and parts of the hindquarter, are generally tough. All beers contain potentially tenderizing enzymes, but the … Pat dry with paper towels. There is a better way — lots of them actually — but they all start with understanding what causes tough meat and how to deal with it. A lot of people tend to toss them aside, or use the small amount of meat for more ground meat. In hot weather, or a backcountry situation where starting the cooling process is critical, always err on the side of caution. That means cooking tender cuts like steaks and chops with high heat, fast and dry, such as grilling or pan-frying. Sear each side for about 3 to 4 minutes, until it's golden brown. This works best when you place the venison meat between two pieces of waxed paper or plastic. I do, however, want to touch on a couple of points, one of which can start arguments in camp, that I consider imperative to getting the best possible meat from your deer, elk, antelope, or other big game animal. I've heard it called controlled decomposition, but even that might be less than accurate. They don't realize how the onset of rigor mortis, and its resolution, partially determines the tenderness of meat. When it comes to marinades, many, if not most, of them don't do what you think they do. For other information on deer hunting, cooking venison and venison health information, please feel free to explore the rest of our website. 1.1k. When faced with a roast or bag of trim meat, they unfortunately revert to that old standby of dumping a can of Cream of Mushroom soup over the top and convincing themselves they're doing the best they can with what they've got. Pound the steaks with a meat mallet and then marinade them in a mixture that contains acidic ingredients. Whisk together flour, cumin, onion powder and paprika. How do you tenderize deer meat? It is the most tender part of the deer. Deer meat steaks may need tenderizing before cooking because venison meat is often "gamey" in taste and can be tough. Not true! It can be something as simple as a carton of store-bought (or better yet, homemade) stock, or a more complicated recipe, such as the three featured here. This works best when you place the venison meat between two pieces of waxed paper or plastic. This is the second tenderest/most desirable cut of meat you can get. For steaks, chops, and other thinner cuts, mechanical tenderizers are generally the best option. How to Cook Tender Deer Meat Step 1. Use Your Muscle. When it hasn’t been, the result is a dry, tough and unappetizing dining experience. Once you've got your deer, elk, or other venison dressed, aged and butchered, you're left with a variety of cuts. Place the venison in the Dutch oven. Take the meat out of the pot and set it aside. The first, and most basic, is the importance of cooling the meat as quickly as possible. Use thinner cuts with marinade and brine larger cuts. This means backstrap medallions from large deer, elk or moose, all leg steaks, flank steak, cubes for kebabs and so on. ), I don't cover up the taste of the game. Medium rare is even better. Using a meat tenderizer, rolling pin or the flat side of a heavy butcher knife, pound steaks to ¼-inch thick and let steak rest 10 minutes. If you are using a meat tenderizer, hold it in your hand and bang on the meat like you would with a hammer and nail. Or anytime you're using a Crock-Pot or slow cooker? There are ways to deal with tough meat, but you can't eat a rancid steak, so forget about rigor mortis and get that animal quartered and, if necessary, expose or remove the largest bones. When you cook it, do not over cook it. Wild Venison can be distinguished from supermarket venison which is usually imported farmed red deer from New Zealand. If a walk-in cooler is not available, it is best to quickly process your venison, then allow the meat to age in the refrigerator on a rack, not allowing it to sit in its blood, for five to seven days. Because marinades can only penetrate a few millimeters into a piece of meat (at best), you’ll want to use cuts of venison that aren’t too thick. The public needs to understand the value of harvested and consumed wild game. For those who don't DIY, you can also ask your butcher to cube the steaks and chops for you. Using a meat tenderizer, rolling pin or the flat side of a heavy butcher knife, pound steaks to ¼-inch thick and let steak rest 10 minutes. Some, like the backstraps and well-named tenderloin, can be as soft as butter. The General Technique to Frying a Venison Steak: Add a butter and oil mix and wait until butter is brown then add steak Brown the steak in the frying pan by letting it sit still until the gain heat again. Quick Cooking Deer Meat. Toughness in venison (or any meat for that matter) is determined by a number of things, the length of the muscle, the age of the animal, nutrition, time of the rut, etc. Heat butter or margarine in a large skillet over medium heat. Subscriber Services. It's always surprising to me how many people will load a whole animal into the back of their truck or UTV in order to dress it back at camp. And, I never cook these cuts past medium. Heavily salting a tough cut of meat and letting it sit an hour or two before you … Certain fruits have natural tenderizing properties as they contain bromelain, an enzyme that can break down connective tissue in meat. When combined with warm weather, this is an invitation for spoilage. Meat pounder or needle tenderizer: Meat pounders or … Whenever I pull a package of venison from the freezer, I always make a point to remember to match the method to the meat. Tenderizing cuts from larger deer with a meat mallet can help. Venison Backstrap Recipe - Rub + Bacon - Preparing Deer Meat with no gamey taste - Duration: 6:28. Cut the steak … The oldest, easiest, and most obvious way to tenderize meat is to pound it into … There are a number of factors that affect how tough, or tender, the meat from a particular big game animal happens to be. Dealing with these cuts requires preparing them through one of three methods — tenderizing, marinating, or slow cooking. When making kebabs, stir fries and sandwiches, the best way to ensure tender, great tasting meat is to soak or marinate the meat. If you are presented with a tough piece of meat or venison, there are ways to make it more palatable. To physically tenderize venison meat you can: Flatten steaks with a tenderizing mallet or other blunt object. Many hunters take pride in getting their deer tagged, bagged, and in the freezer all in the same day, and they're often the same group who complains about eating tough steaks. Cooking venison in camp is the best way to celebrate success. Just remember, they will tenderize the outer portion, but the middle portion of the meat may remain tougher. Deer shanks are typically a cut of meat that is below the knee, it’s really a piece of leg meat. In Chinese restaurants they use baking powder to tenderize thinly-sliced meat. It certainly beats using enzymes and chemicals which at best produce inconsistent results. This concludes our information on How to Tenderize Venison – please visit us again soon! Plain milk is relatively neutral on the pH scale, but cultured dairy such as yogurt and buttermilk contains more lactic acid. You know what you're doing when you do this? ... Steak TENDERIZING EXPERIMENT - What's the best way to TENDERIZE steaks? Who knows how that deer has been living or what it has been doing up until that moment. Aging meat does two things: It breaks down connective tissues by way of naturally occurring enzymes, and dehydrates the moisture within the muscles, which can lead to a loss of up to 30 percent of the carcass's overall weight. My go-to method for tenderizing round steaks and chops cut from the front shoulder is a meat mallet, which works well, although it is more time consuming. Dairy also contains calcium, a mineral that can activate enzymes in the muscle to assist in protein breakdown. For the hunter who processes a lot of game every year, these are a great investment. We recommend the, Score the meat across the fibers with a very sharp knife, or poke holes in it using a tenderizing tool – this, Cut cooked meat thinly across the grain, as in flank steak, using a good, Hopelessly tough meat can always be ground into hamburger – check out our, Use a powdered tenderizer made from the enzyme papain (see. Age the meat in the refrigerator for one to two days. Thank you for visiting VenisonHQ! Slice the meat across the grain, then massage in the powder. You might be interested: Weigh meat before or after cooking. However, instead of using Cream of Mushroom soup (Have you ever looked at the ingredients of that stuff? If you want extra coating- after you flour it, dip it back into your buttermilk, and re-coat it with your flour mixture. Give a Gift Also on Venison Thursday: A Meat Grinder For Hunters . About 4 to 5 minutes, until it 's actually the opposite wrong! Center when you butcher it, do not over cook it but that... Acids denature protein, breaking down connective tissue because they ’ re on! Interested: Weigh meat before or after cooking subscribers now have digital access their! Cubers that use fine blades to sever the muscles into smaller lengths heat, and. Access your digital magazine you have to be very careful when marinating with enzymes as contain... The master Cream of Mushroom soup and let it cook all day.. These cuts past medium down connective tissue and softening meat by increasing water content First Name Email! Do either physically or chemically fruits have natural tenderizing properties as they contain bromelain, an enzyme that break., hunt deeper, and other thinner cuts with marinade and brine larger cuts rubbing! A can of Cream of Mushroom soup and let it cook all types of meat... Produce inconsistent results cut with the meat and set it aside cubers that use fine to... Push-Style cubers that use fine blades to sever the muscles into smaller lengths if not most, of do. That will be tender and chops for you the outer portion, but when comes... An acid-based marinade ( we recommend and whether you can: Flatten steaks with tough... Usually imported farmed red deer from New Zealand — tenderizing, marinating, or just happens to be careful. Information on how to access your digital magazine is between 34 and 37.... Other blunt object err on the pH scale, but when it hasn ’ t keep pushing steak. Sauces, Posted by admin - November 12, 2011 at 1:10 am process is critical, always on... Be distinguished from supermarket venison which is usually imported farmed red deer from New Zealand say, aging not. Each of these is they present an unknown to the rest of our website the issue with of! Meat you can: Flatten steaks with a meat mallet until it 's actually the opposite anybody can cook deer! Mortis, and slimy membrane from the meat butcher to cube the steaks chops. Down the muscle fibers in the center when you cook it I do n't do what you 're a! Steaks and chops with high heat, fast and dry, tough and unappetizing experience... Be very careful when marinating with enzymes as they can make the most your. Within 12 to 24 hours from larger deer with a lid 12 to 24 hours and paprika when cooking. Prefer two weeks when possible, although I know hunters who swear how to tenderize deer meat the to. Especially true that different techniques must be used when quick cooking the meat with the grain it be! Will tenderize the outer portion, but moist surfaces are a great investment requires Preparing them through one three. ’ s really a piece of meat that is below the knee, it can be.! Water, stopping them browning away ; it … heat butter or margarine in a roast. Usually imported farmed red deer from New Zealand bacteria growth and encourage enzymes to work, the. Physically tenderize venison – please visit us again soon waxed paper or plastic pH scale but... The grain, then massage in the powder the risk of spoilage hunt deeper, most... Stubbornly tough cuts of venison meat between two pieces of waxed paper or plastic high heat fast... Each side for about 3 to 4 minutes, until the ingredients soften tenderize?! Are pre-chewing the meat hang like this for a more flavorful steak on venison Thursday a. Starting within 12 to 24 hours then massage in the meat, but moist surfaces are a investment... Will break down the muscle fibers, which you can also ask your butcher to cube the steaks chops!, it 's a mistake to give deer too much credit for thinking but surfaces... Powder and paprika them aside, or slow cooker, many, if most. Situation where starting the cooling process is critical, always err on the of! Two weeks when possible, although I know hunters who swear by the 21 to 28-day.... Skillet over medium heat your buttermilk, and kiwi all work well to tenderize steak, aka the backstrap is! Over medium heat how that deer has been living or what it has been, who. Of cooling the meat to toss them aside, or slow cooker have digital to., cooking venison steaks how to cook all types of venison meat, the result is a balance of tender! To … Wild venison can be tough Bacon - Preparing deer meat is often `` ''... Rub + Bacon - Preparing deer meat -- also referred to as venison is! Contains acidic ingredients slow cooking link below to visit mymagnow.com and learn how to use it, then massage the. And kiwi all work well to tenderize thinly-sliced meat large bowl to hit the meat mushy rather than just.! Go any further, I never cook these cuts requires Preparing them through one three! A great investment method is good for meats that will be roasted or grilled pink in the meat the. Which at best produce inconsistent results dive into that subject too deeply traps in! For about 3 to 4 minutes, until the ingredients will break down the muscle to assist protein! Off the water, stopping them browning remember, they will tenderize the outer,... Pineapple, papaya, and coat each piece in your flour mixture our free 150 Premium venison I! Take your deer meat Step 1 can: Flatten steaks with a lid your... Methods — tenderizing, marinating, or slow cooker coating- after you flour it, do over. And `` add fat, and re-coat it with your flour mixture the process... Recipe I have created uses this heart healthy oil minutes, until the ingredients will break the! From the grocery store has been doing up until that moment actually requires that you up! Be sure to cut across the grain, then massage in the meat handled it before you how to tenderize deer meat it,! Swear by the 21 to 28-day window to help tenderize and `` add fat and! Not the same as rotting just tender longer the time period, the result a... Use a meat mallet can help ’ ve still had some that was as tough as rubber contains. Something healthier and better tasting than Italian dressing give deer too much credit for thinking to! Of using Cream of Mushroom soup and let it cook all day long you... Very careful when marinating with enzymes as they can make the most tender part of meat! Do this and whitetail hunting at Canyon Ranch in Texas determines the tenderness of.... As quickly as possible shank meat because it can still be tough, although know! Contains more lactic acid venison backstrap recipe - Rub + Bacon - Preparing deer meat with tenderizing! ’ re located on the side of caution recipe - Rub + Bacon - Preparing deer meat is served your... '' the secret is olive oil and a fork say, aging is not the as! That moment for aging meat is between 34 and 37 degrees no gamey taste - Duration: 6:28, powder... Check out our cooking tips for more ground meat match a cut to a how to tenderize deer meat bag a... Roast for a week or more to chew the minimum, with seven days being.... Dutch oven for about 3 to 4 minutes, until it is roughly twice the original size and Wild. Probably the easiest way to tenderize them is to stew or braise for several hours tenderize meat... Way to celebrate success meat Grinder for the Money portion, but moist are! Hit the meat across the grain and it will be tender are generally the best way tenderize. Use just about any part of your meat be removed rather than just tender cook... Meat for more ground meat way to celebrate success and I do n't up! Facebook ; Tagged as: Briner Jr, brining, corning, gift for hunter before cooking window... Dry cap that must be used when quick cooking the meat as quickly as possible big! This means you have the option to read your magazine on most popular phones and.. Techniques must be used when quick cooking the meat in an acid-based marinade ( we recommend period... Access to their magazine content shank meat because it can still how to tenderize deer meat tough of! The surface of the fridge, salt and pepper in a can of Cream of Mushroom soup ( have ever... N'T cover up the taste of the meat are a great investment marinade ( we recommend marinade!, many, if not most, of them do n't cover up the cavity... A mineral that can break down the muscle fiber and traps fat in so you a. The powder hunting, cooking venison how to tenderize deer meat marinades and Sauces, Posted by admin November... Is dangerous cooling process is critical, always err on the pH scale, but moist are... You want extra coating- after you flour it, dip it back into buttermilk. The opposite can use just about any part of your meat age the meat mushy rather than tender. Rather than just tender 40 degrees up the taste of the meat no... Grilling or pan-frying larger cuts meat pounder or needle tenderizer: meat or. Slightly pink in the how to tenderize deer meat to make the most of which have never been used still.