Little is known about her early life; she was possibly born before her father, King John of England, married his first wife in 1189. “A very bad man,” in the words of one contemporary chronicler, “brim-full of evil qualities.” John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was an English prince, military leader, and statesman. [190], The first part of the campaign went well, with John outmanoeuvring the forces under the command of Prince Louis and retaking the county of Anjou by the end of June. [54] It was difficult for a commander to advance far into fresh territory without having secured his lines of communication by capturing these fortifications, which slowed the progress of any attack. [74] John attempted a synchronised operation involving land-based and water-borne forces, considered by most historians today to have been imaginative in conception, but overly complex for forces of the period to have carried out successfully. [203], Neither John nor the rebel barons seriously attempted to implement the peace accord. [86] John was in England for much longer periods than his predecessors, which made his rule more personal than that of previous kings, particularly in previously ignored areas such as the north. [210] Having regained the south-east John split his forces, sending William Longespée to retake the north side of London and East Anglia, whilst John himself headed north via Nottingham to attack the estates of the northern barons. [81] Modern historians remain divided as to whether John suffered from a case of "royal schizophrenia" in his approach to government, or if his actions merely reflected the complex model of Angevin kingship in the early 13th century. [197], Letters of support from the Pope arrived in April but by then the rebel barons had organised. The eastern border region of Normandy had been extensively cultivated by Philip and his predecessors for several years, whilst Angevin authority in the south had been undermined by Richard's giving away of various key castles some years before. One consequence of this was an expansion of the wine trade with the Continent. 5. Turner, p. 192 citing Brown, pp. [251] Bradbury takes a moderate line, but suggests that in recent years modern historians have been overly lenient towards John's numerous faults. [74] In March 1204, Gaillard fell. 10–11; Turner, p. 193. [26] With his primary heir dead, Henry rearranged the plans for the succession: Richard was to be made King of England, albeit without any actual power until the death of his father; Geoffrey would retain Brittany; and John would now become the Duke of Aquitaine in place of Richard. [40] At this point Walter of Coutances, the Archbishop of Rouen, returned to England, having been sent by Richard to restore order. [154] Conflict continued in Ireland between the Anglo-Norman settlers and the indigenous Irish chieftains, with John manipulating both groups to expand his wealth and power in the country. [176] Some contemporary chroniclers suggested that in January Philip II of France had been charged with deposing John on behalf of the papacy, although it appears that Innocent merely prepared secret letters in case Innocent needed to claim the credit if Philip did successfully invade England. [212] John took back Alexander's possessions in northern England in a rapid campaign and pushed up towards Edinburgh over a ten-day period. [161] After the 1140s, these principles had been largely accepted within the English Church, albeit with an element of concern about centralising authority in Rome. King John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216) was the son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.He was King of England from 6 April 1199, until his death. Warren, p.139; McLynn, p.78; Danziger and Gillingham, p.26. John had a bad temper and could be very cruel. Princess of Thieves, a 2001 television movie concerning Robin Hood's supposed daughter, depicts Prince John trying to seize the throne from the rightful heir, Prince Phillip, an illegitimate son of King Richard. Kate Norgate, for example, argued that John's downfall had been due not to his failure in war or strategy, but due to his "almost superhuman wickedness", whilst James Ramsay blamed John's family background and his cruel personality for his downfall. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). John was born on Christmas Eve, the youngest son of Henry II and his wife Eleanor of … David Carpenter provides an accessible summary of Power's argument on the collapse of Normandy. [212], Prince Louis intended to land in the south of England in May 1216, and John assembled a naval force to intercept him. [116] John now had the additional ability to "cripple his vassals" on a significant scale using his new economic and judicial measures, which made the threat of royal anger all the more serious. [160] John's invasion, striking into the Welsh heartlands, was a military success. [219], John returned west but is said to have lost a significant part of his baggage train along the way. Pedigree report of King John I "Lackland" Plantagenet of England, son of King Henry II ("Curt Mantel") of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, born on December 24th, 1166 in Kings Manor House, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England. [77][nb 9] John retreated back across the Channel in December, sending orders for the establishment of a fresh defensive line to the west of Chateau Gaillard. according to, these are her children: Hawise de Tracy. [121], John's personal life greatly affected his reign. [192] The local Angevin nobles refused to advance with John; left at something of a disadvantage, John retreated back to La Rochelle. [220] Roger of Wendover provides the most graphic account of this, suggesting that the King's belongings, including the English Crown Jewels, were lost as he crossed one of the tidal estuaries which empties into the Wash, being sucked in by quicksand and whirlpools. [85] John was very active in the administration of England and was involved in every aspect of government. King John of England was the youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, his siblings included Henry The Younger King (his eldest brother) and Richard I , the Lionheart.Already you can get a sense of te context and perspective in which John’s life and destiny would take shape. John was born around Christmas in 1166 or 1167 in Oxford, the youngest and favourite son of Henry II. [211] Unfortunately for John, his fleet was dispersed by bad storms and Louis landed unopposed in Kent. [221] Modern historians assert that by October 1216 John faced a "stalemate", "a military situation uncompromised by defeat". John’s father wasn’t just King of England; he had acquired land in Anjou and Normandy. It soon descended into a stalemate. [193] A peace agreement was signed in which John returned Anjou to Philip and paid him compensation; the truce was intended to last for six years. [105] The resulting social pressures were complicated by bursts of deflation that resulted from John's military campaigns. [180] Innocent benefited from the resolution of his long-standing English problem, but John probably gained more, as Innocent became a firm supporter of John for the rest of his reign, backing him in both domestic and continental policy issues. [49] Richard appears to have started to recognise John as his heir presumptive in the final years before his death, but the matter was not clear-cut and medieval law gave little guidance as to how the competing claims should be decided. He became King of England on 6th April 1199, inheriting the throne from his older brother King Richard I, who had no children. John also had to deal with a lot of issues while he was king. The result was political unrest across the country. [164] The chapter secretly elected Reginald and he travelled to Rome to be confirmed; the bishops challenged the appointment and the matter was taken before Innocent. [137] When the threat of invasion faded, John formed a large military force in England intended for Poitou, and a large fleet with soldiers under his own command intended for Normandy. [45] Richard declared that John – despite being 27 years old – was merely "a child who has had evil counsellors" and forgave him, but removed his lands with the exception of Ireland. [26] The two attacked the capital of Poitiers, and Richard responded by attacking Brittany. Born in 1170 - Salisbury, Wiltshire, England; Deceased in 1216 - Kent, England,aged 46 years old Parents. [184] Many of John's military household joined the rebels, particularly amongst those that John had appointed to administrative roles across England; their local links and loyalties outweighed their personal loyalty to John. His determination to reverse the Continental failure bore fruit in ruthlessly efficient financial administration, marked by taxation on revenues, investigations into the royal forests, taxation of the Jews, a great inquiry into feudal tenures, and the increasingly severe exploitation of his feudal prerogatives. William Marshal, King John’s good friend and supposedly the greatest knight in all England, was to be made the guardian of young Henry. King John was King of England from 1199 to 1216. [250] John Gillingham, author of a major biography of Richard I, follows this line too, although he considers John a less effective general than do Turner or Warren, and describes him "one of the worst kings ever to rule England". John was the son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and youngest brother of Richard "the Lionheart". A Knight at the Movies: Medieval History on Film. Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans (5 January 1209 – 2 April 1272). Some class Henry II as the first Plantagenet King of England; others refer to Henry, Richard and John as the Angevin dynasty, and consider Henry III to be the first Plantagenet ruler. Matters were not helped by Richard's sale of many royal properties in 1189, and taxation played a much smaller role in royal income than in later centuries. Betrothed when very young to Hugh IX, Count of Lusignan, Isabella of Angouleme married John Lackland of England, son of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Henry II of England. [69] Arthur had initially been imprisoned at Falaise and was then moved to Rouen. [137] Strategically, John faced several challenges:[138] England itself had to be secured against possible French invasion,[138] the sea-routes to Bordeaux needed to be secured following the loss of the land route to Aquitaine, and his remaining possessions in Aquitaine needed to be secured following the death of his mother, Eleanor, in April 1204. This led Richard to recognize John as his heir. His Early Life. [206] John was well prepared for a conflict. Philip Augustus, King of France 1180–1223. John was a younger son of Henry II and he was not expected to become king. [214] Once John contained Alexander in Scotland, he marched south to deal with the challenge of the coming invasion. Lionheart and Lackland: King Richard, King John and the Wars of Conquest. John and Philip negotiated the May 1200 Treaty of Le Goulet; by this treaty, Philip recognised John as the rightful heir to Richard in respect to his French possessions, temporarily abandoning the wider claims of his client, Arthur. The deaths of his older brothers left John in a position to become King of England, a title he assumed after the 1199 death of Richard I of England … This interpretation has been challenged by John Gillingham, whose minority view is that Richard, unlike John, successfully defended Normandy with a similar level of military resources. [nb 10] John levied scutage payments eleven times in his seventeen years as king, as compared to eleven times in total during the reign of the preceding three monarchs. John was very young when his mother left for Poitiers and sent John to ‘Fontevrault Abbey,’ where he was assigned a teacher to educate him. Birth: Dec. 24, 1167 Oxford City of Oxford Oxfordshire, England Death: Oct. 19, 1216 Newark-on-Trent Newark and Sherwood District Nottinghamshire, England. [56] Feudal levies could be raised only for a fixed length of time before they returned home, forcing an end to a campaign; mercenary forces, often called Brabançons after the Duchy of Brabant but actually recruited from across northern Europe, could operate all year long and provide a commander with more strategic options to pursue a campaign, but cost much more than equivalent feudal forces. [227] The failed Magna Carta agreement was resuscitated by Marshal's administration and reissued in an edited form in 1217 as a basis for future government. [193] John arrived back in England in October. [61] Just as John stood to benefit strategically from marrying Isabella, so the marriage threatened the interests of the Lusignans, whose own lands currently provided the key route for royal goods and troops across Aquitaine. King John was born 24th December 1166 and died 19th October 1216. The list below shows descent from William the Conqueror (see Descendants of William I of England for another list). In England, after a revolt of the barons, he was forced to seal the Magna Carta (1215). [26] Henry II moved in support of Richard, and Henry the Young King died from dysentery at the end of the campaign. [240] The anonymous play The Troublesome Reign of King John portrayed the King as a "proto-Protestant martyr", similar to that shown in John Bale's morality play Kynge Johan, in which John attempts to save England from the "evil agents of the Roman Church". An argument with Pope Innocent III led to John's excommunication in 1209, a dispute he finally settled in 1213. [229], John's first wife, Isabella, Countess of Gloucester, was released from imprisonment in 1214; she remarried twice, and died in 1217. John, King of England (1166 – 1216), married twice. Early medieval financial figures have no easy contemporary equivalent, due to the different role of money in the economy. [146] This had been rescinded by Richard I in exchange for financial compensation in 1189, but the relationship remained uneasy. On Richard’s accession in July 1189, John was made count of Mortain (a title that became his usual style), was confirmed as lord of Ireland, was granted lands and revenues in England worth £6,000 a year, and was married to Isabella, heiress to the earldom of Gloucester. He was forced into meeting the Barons at Runnymede and agreed to their terms only for the purpose of expedience. De Roches was a powerful Anjou noble, but John largely ignored him, causing considerable offence, whilst the King kept the rebel leaders in such bad conditions that twenty-two of them died. 242–243. Plantagenet Ancestry: a Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. [82], John inherited a sophisticated system of administration in England, with a range of royal agents answering to the Royal Household: the Chancery kept written records and communications; the Treasury and the Exchequer dealt with income and expenditure respectively; and various judges were deployed to deliver justice around the kingdom. [97] He also used revenue generation as a way of exerting political control over the barons: debts owed to the crown by the King's favoured supporters might be forgiven; collection of those owed by enemies was more stringently enforced. Henry III, King of England + b. [81] Both Henry II and Richard had argued that kings possessed a quality of "divine majesty"; John continued this trend and claimed an "almost imperial status" for himself as ruler. 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